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The present day Louisiana Air National Guard was originally formed in December 1940 as the 122nd Observation Squadron, a National Guard unit of the then "US Army Air Corps". Since its inception, the Louisiana ANG has participated in World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Cold War, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Northern Watch, Operation Southern Watch, Kosovo, Operation Noble Eagle, Air Expeditionary Force Deployments, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Global War on Terrorism.

The Louisiana ANG's flying unit, the 159th Fighter Wing (159 FW), is nicknamed the "Bayou Militia" and operationally-gained by the Air Combat Command (ACC).

A trained force of more than 1500 men and women, the 159 FW contains one of the Air National Guard's premier F-15 Fighter Wings.

The Louisiana Air Guard is unique compared to other reserve force components in that it is tasked with dual missions. The LA ANG's state and federal missions are to provide trained, well-equipped personnel who can augment the active forces during both national emergencies and/or war, and to provide assistance during national disasters and civil disturbances.

The LA ANG provides its troops an opportunity to enjoy civilian life while contributing to the welfare of the country, state and community.

The 159th Fighter Wing flies F-15C and F-15D aircraft with a primary mission of air sovereignty.
159th Fighter Wing/Louisiana Air National Guard was awarded the coveted "Outstanding Air National Guard Unit" in 2003. This prestigious award is given annually to the Air National Guard unit which meets or exceeds the criteria from the National Guard Bureau. The 159th Fighter Wing has shown extreme professionalism and dedication to the mission of protecting the United States and its allies.